Monday, January 20, 2020
The Hobbit Book Report CHARACTER INTRODUCTION Ã¢â¬ ¢ BILBO BAGGINS: The Hobbit who led the Dwarves to the Lonely Mountain to reclaim their treasure from the dragon Smaug. He found the One Ring in Gollum's cave Ã¢â¬ ¢ GANDALF: The Wizard that accompanies Bilbo and the dwarves on their quest. He is well versed in magic spells and often calls upon them to save his comrades. Ã¢â¬ ¢ THORIN OAKENSHIELD: Son of the King of Dwarves who were driven from the Lonely Mountain by Smaug. With the aid of Gandalf and Bilbo he seeks regain his treasure and the throne. When Smaug died he truly became King under the Mountain, though he was killed in combat in the battle of five Armies. Ã¢â¬ ¢ SMAUG: The dragon of the Lonely Mountain who hordes the treasure he stole from the dwarves of Dale. Ã¢â¬ ¢ GOLLUM: He is perfect example of the evil powers of the One Ring. He was born a Hobbit but had the ring too long. It made him into a slimy little creature that only lives to possess the ring. Ã¢â¬ ¢ BARD: The archer who killed Smaug. He shot the dragon in the one spot it had no protection. The townÃ¢â¬â¢s people later considered him a hero. What the people didn't know it was Bilbo who discovered the weak spot in the dragon's iron scales. Ã¢â¬ ¢ BEORN: An enemy of Orcs, he becomes friends with Bilbo and Gandalf. He has the ability to change forms from human to bear. It is he who determines the outcome of the battle of five Armies. STORY SUMMARY The book begins with Bilbo Baggins enjoying a pipe after breakfast. This is one of his favorite pleasures and he feels quite content in doing so. He is middle-aged, and resides in a clean warm burrow in the ground. One morning Gandalf, a wizard stops by to chat with Bilbo. He informs Bilbo that he is looking for someone to go on an adventure with him. Although Bilbo is tempted he declines, but not before inviting Gandalf for tea the next morning. The next day Bilbo hears his doorbell and he recalls inviting Gandalf for tea, but instead of the wizard at the door, there is a group of dwarves... thirteen in all. Thorin son of the dwarf king starts to outline a plan on how to regain the treasure stolen by the dragon Smaug.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Chapter I The Problem Ã¢â¬â Its BackgroundOur environment today is experiencing a lot of superfluous phenomena like floods, earthquakes and other incidents and pollution is the root of all of these incidents. Serving the environment would be a big help to Mother Earth. The researchers decided to make junk into a new and useful thing that may be used by students and that may be a progress in our economy. Plastic is one of our societyÃ¢â¬â¢s main problems for it is hard to decompose; it takes years to decompose a single plastic bag.Plastics are one of the reasons why we experience flood for the reason that they block the water that passes the inland waterway that makes the water level go up rather making it go down. Plastic can be useful but it is also harmful to our environment. Using plastics correctly would be a great help. The principle is quite simple; there is a strong electric current in a thin resistive wire. The wire under the effect of current and heat cut easily and cle anly Styrofoam, much better than with a knife or a cutter, particularly for large pieces.Styrofoam is also a plastic and it is a light, expanded polystyrene plastic. Styrofoam is a very versatile material used in many hobby applications ranging from remote-control airplanes to home remodeling. Like other plastics it takes years to decompose Styrofoam, a reason why we should use it efficiently and correctly. Styrofoam is an important part of the modern economy. It's a very versatile product, used for cups, plates, and even some interior decorating items. Another very popular use is that of packing material. Packing Styrofoam comes in either loose form, or as Ã¢â¬Å"peanuts. As consumers, we use this product every day. However, it has many other uses besides those for household decorating or shipping. Styrofoam has a very low melting temperature that is why the researchers decided to melt the Styrofoam rather than cutting it. It can also be used to cut plastic or synthetic foam.A guit ar string has a number of frequencies at which it will naturally vibrate. These natural frequencies are known as the harmonics of the guitar string. Guitar string can be made of Bronze Wound the most common guitar string, the Phosphor Bronze Wound is a bronze string with phosphor added to he alloy, Silk & SteelÃ is a special design string where the unwrapped strings are plain steel and the wrapped strings have a thin steel core surrounded by many nylon filaments and then wrapped with silver plated brass windings, Nickel PlatedÃ a string consists of nickel plated steel wraps around a steel core, Pure NickelÃ a string consists of nickel wraps around a steel core. Due to the pure nickel content and Stainless SteelÃ is defined as aÃ steelÃ alloyÃ with a minimum of 10. 5Ã or 11%Ã chromiumÃ content by mass.The researchers decided to make a research/experiment that would help the environment by maximizing the use of their resources and by making recycled materials u seful. Another reason why the researchers chose this experiment was so that they may help provide new business opportunities in the industry of Styrofoam carving/modeling. Statement of the Problem The researchers aimed to study if it is possible to make Styrofoam cutter made of guitar sting and other recycled materials. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:1. What are the materials that can be used in making a Styrofoam cutter?2.Does the product function properly?3. How will the finished product made or guitar string and other recyclable materials be effective in terms of being a Styrofoam cutter :3. 1 Quality andÃ effectiveness4. What would be the advantages and disadvantages of the product over the other cutting materials?5. How could this product make a change in the society?Statement of Hypotheses Sub Ã¢â¬â Problems| Null hypotheses| Alternative hypotheses1. Would the materials be eco friendly?1. The materials that are needed are harmful to our e nvironment.1. The materials needed are recyclable materials and Eco friendly.2. Would the experiment be functional?2. It would not bring any help and it would be just a waste of time.2. The experiment would serve itÃ¢â¬â¢s propose why it is done.3. Would the researcher accomplish the experiment?3. It wonÃ¢â¬â¢t work for the researcher lacks experience and knowledge.3. The experiment will work for the researchers persevere a lot and guidance of the researchers reviews.4. Would the researcher meet all the needed requirements? |4. It would be hard for the researchers to find some of the materials and tools needed to make the machine.4. The researcher will make ways to continue the experiment and finish the product with a good quality.5. Would the experiment provide innovation in our technology?5. The experiment will not be an innovative one.5. The experiment will provide a new technological development.6. Would the experiment be a successful one?6. The researchers would fail in the ir experiment for the product would not work.6. The researchers would succeed in creating their product as a useful material for cutting Styrofoam.Scope and LimitationThis study is limited in making an effective Styrofoam cutter made of guitar and other recycled materials that can be found at home. Guitar string will be the main material used in making the Styrofoam cutter. This study must be conducted within ten (10) months period. This study is limited on how far the researcher can go. This study aimed to provide a new innovation in the industry of Styrofoam carving. This study would look for ways to make waste into a useful object that will be a help in improving our quality of life, which can help in making life easier and in making things go faster.It is an innovation, an improvement and the researchers chose this topic to help improve life and not to make people lazy. It is just on how the users utilize the machine. Significance of the Study This study aimed to produce a Styro foam cutter made of guitar strings and other recycled materials. This study would provide a great innovation in the industry of Styrofoam craving. It would help in cutting, craving and shaping Styrofoam in a faster and easier way. It can also help in preventing too much waste from carving Styrofoam for this machine can cut Styrofoam efficiently.This study would provide another development in our municipality for it can help in providing employment for housewives or skilled craftsmen for extra income, for this machine could be done at home and with recycled materials. This machine can create simple craft that can be traded to other country. That can promote our economy and our country.Definition of Terms1. CarvingÃ foam Ã¢â¬â is a foam product which is designed to be worked by carving. A wide variety of foams can be used forÃ carving, including urethane foam, expended polystyrene foam and polyusocyanurate foam.2. Conductor Ã¢â¬âÃ is a material which contains movableÃ el ectric charges. In metallicÃ conductors such asÃ copperÃ orÃ aluminum, the movable charged particles areÃ electrons.3. DecompositionÃ Ã¢â¬â is the process by which organic material is broken down into simpler forms of matter. The process is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in theÃ biome. The science which studies decomposition is generally referred to asÃ taphonomyÃ from theÃ GreekÃ wordÃ taphos, meaning tomb.4. Dimmers Ã¢â¬â devices used to vary the brightness of aÃ light. By decreasing or increasing theÃ RMSÃ voltage. Although variable-voltage devices are used for various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved for those intended to controlÃ resistiveÃ incandescent,Ã halogenÃ and more recentlyÃ compact fluorescentÃ lighting.5. Environmentally friendlyÃ Ã¢â¬â is also known as Ã eco-friendly,Ã nature friendly, andÃ green are terms used to refer toÃ goods and services,Ã laws, guidelines and policies claimed to inflict minimal or no harm on theÃ environment.6. FuseÃ Ã¢â¬â a type of low resistanceÃ resistorÃ that acts as a sacrificialÃ to provideÃ over current protection, of either the load or source circuit. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts theÃ circuitÃ in which it is connected.7. GuitarÃ Ã¢â¬â a plucked string instrument usually played with fingers or aÃ pick. The guitar consists of a body with a rigid neck to which the strings, generally six in number, are attached. Guitars are traditionally constructed of various woods and strung with animal gut or, more recently, with either nylon or steel strings. Some modern guitars are made ofÃ polycarbonateÃ materials.8. Heat transfer Ã¢â¬âÃ is a discipline ofÃ thermal engineeringÃ that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange ofÃ thermal energyÃ andÃ heatÃ between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such asÃ heat conduction,Ã convection,Ã thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes.9. Hotwire foam cutter Ã¢â¬â is a tool used to cutÃ polystyreneÃ foam and similar materials. The device consists of a thin, taut metal wire, often made ofÃ nichromeÃ orÃ stainless steel, or a thicker wire preformed into a desired shape, which is heated viaÃ electrical resistanceÃ to approximately 200Ã °C. As the wire is passed through the material to be cut, the heat from the wire vaporizes the material just in advance of contact.10. Lead Ã¢â¬â an electrical connection consisting of a length ofÃ wireÃ or soldering pad that comes from a device. Leads are used for physical support, to transfer power, to probeÃ circuits, and to transmit information.11. Plastic Ã¢â¬â are typicallyÃ organicÃ polymersÃ of highÃ molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually sy nthetic, most commonly derived fromÃ petrochemicals, but many are partially natural. Plastic materials are any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-syntheticÃ organicÃ solids that are moldable.12. Polystyrene Ã¢â¬â also known as Thermocole. It is anÃ aromaticÃ polymerÃ made from theÃ monomerÃ styrene, a liquidÃ hydrocarbonÃ that is manufactured fromÃ petroleumÃ by theÃ chemical industry. It is also a thermoplastic substance, which is in solid state at room temperature, but flows if heated above itsÃ glass transition temperatureÃ of about 100 Ã °C, and becomes solid again when cooled. Pure solid polystyrene is a colorless, hard plastic with limited flexibility. It can be cast into molds with fine detail.13. StringÃ Ã¢â¬â is theÃ vibrating elementÃ that produces sound inÃ string instruments, such as theÃ guitar,Ã harp,Ã piano, and members of theÃ violin family. Strings are lengths of a flexible material kept underÃ tensionÃ so t hat they may vibrate freely, but controllably.14. StyrofoamÃ Ã¢â¬â a trademark ofÃ The Dow Chemical CompanyÃ for closed-cellÃ extruded polystyrene foamÃ currently made forÃ thermal insulationÃ and craft applications. In 1941, researchers in Dow's Chemical Physics Lab found a way to make foamed polystyrene. Led byÃ Ray McIntire, they Ã¢â¬Å"rediscoveredÃ¢â¬ a method first discovered by SwedishÃ inventorÃ Carl Georg Munters. Dow acquired exclusive rights to use Munters' patents and found ways to make large quantities of extruded polystyrene as closed cell foam that resists moisture.15. Switch Ã¢â¬âÃ is anÃ electrical componentÃ that can break anÃ electrical circuit, interrupting theÃ currentÃ or diverting it from one conductor to another.16. Temperature Ã¢â¬â is aÃ physical propertyÃ of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hotÃ andÃ cold.17. TransformerÃ Ã¢â¬â a device that transfersÃ electrical energyÃ from oneÃ circuitÃ to another throughÃ inductively coupledÃ conductorsÃ¢â¬âthe transformer's coils.18. Vinyl Polymer Ã¢â¬âÃ are a group ofÃ polymersÃ derived fromÃ vinylÃ monomers. Their backbone is an extended alkane chain, made by polymerizing an alkenesÃ group (C=C) into a chain (.. -C-C-C-C-.. )19. Voltage Ã¢â¬â the difference inÃ electric potentialÃ between two points Ã¢â¬â or the difference inÃ electric potential energyÃ per unitÃ chargeÃ between two points. A voltage may represent either a source of energy, or it may represent lost or stored energy.20. WireÃ Ã¢â¬â is a single, usuallyÃ cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanicalÃ loadsÃ and to carryÃ electricityÃ andÃ telecommunications signals.Wire is commonly formed byÃ drawingÃ the metal through a hole in aÃ dieÃ orÃ draw plate.Chapter II Review of Related Literature and StudiesIn Chapter I, the researchers were tryi ng to find the problem, looking for more sources about it and trying to find ways to solve the stated problem. In this Chapter, the researchers find sources for their research. The researchers found some related information about hot wires or Styrofoam cutters that will be their guide for the research. Foreign There are many ways of cutting Styrofoam and the researcher has chosen use guitar string or hotwires.Hotwire cutters can be used in cutting any hard plastic or Vinyl polymer and it also has many uses for it is not just for cutting but also for shaping, molding, craving and even for commercial uses. And according to a website hot wire cutter are defined as: Hot wire cutters are used for cutting polystyrene foam types of Styrofoam, or upholstery foam into a variety of shapes and sizes for a wide variety of commercial and happy application. Hotwire foam cutters are usually made of metals. Metals are known for being a good conductor of heat and electricity and that is why it can b e a good aterial to be used in making a hot wire foam cutter. Hot-wire foam cutterÃ is a tool used to cutÃ polystyreneÃ foam and similar materials. The device consists of a thin, taut metal wire, often made ofÃ nichromeÃ orÃ stainless steel, or a thicker wire preformed into a desired shape, which is heated viaÃ electrical resistanceÃ to approximately 200Ã °C. As the wire is passed through the material to be cut, the heat from the wire vaporizes the material just in advance of contact. The researchers chose guitar string as the main substance in creating a foam cutter made out of recycled materials.A usual guitar string is made of steel which makes it a heat conducting metal; a factor why the researchers chose it for it fits to be the special wire in this apparatus. Moreover, guitar strings are also cheap; resource oriented, and can be found at home. These are the reasons why the researchers picked steel guitar string as the special wire. Metals are much better therm al conductors than non-metals because the same mobile electrons which participate in the electrical conduction also take part in the transfer of heat.Hot wire cutters can create a simple Styrofoam in different useful crafts. It can make cash out of junks. It is used by different professionals like Architects, artists, designers, and many more. It can also provide occupation or source of income. It can promote our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Local Our countrymen are well known as skilled craftsmen and very creative people; as the saying goes, Filipinos can make junk as useful things. So, the researchers decided to help our countrymen by creating a Styrofoam cutter made of recycled materials.It can lessen the waste in carving Styrofoam. Styrofoam is made of plastic that can damage our environment; a reason why some organizations recommended to stop using Styrofoam for commercial uses. It is said that Styrofoam is just an additional waste problem for our country. It was said in a new art icle: It shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t take much convincing to Say NO to Styrofoam, but thereÃ¢â¬â¢s so much of it! We are almost as addicted to Styrofoam as we are to oil. And majority of the Styrofoam made ends up in the landfill.The answer to this problem is the proper usage of Styrofoam and having the ight equipment in cutting Styrofoam to lessen the waste or mistakes that can be done. Lastly, caring and having full responsibility of our environment. Man draws almost endless benefits from great gifts of technology like styrene. What it calls for in return is simple: proper use and responsible disposal. With the current waste segregation scheme implemented by the local government, it falls to consumers to play their part in ensuring that their various garbage, particularly polystyrene and plastic, are segregated and undergo the proper recycling process, acquiring yet a whole new range of useful by-products.Review of Related Studies Foreign A flexible automated foam cutting system M. Jouaneh , A. HammadÃ and P. Datseris Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, U. S. A. Abstract: Direct cutting of foam has the advantage of greater flexibility and reduced lead time over molding. This paper discusses the design and development of a flexible automated system for foam cutting that utilizes hot-wire cutters. The cutters are moved through the use of a five-axis gantry-type robot system equipped with a tool turret.A method for modeling the cut geometry, based on representing the three-dimensional cut shape as a combination of basic geometrical block shapes, is presented. This method gives the system flexibility to handle different work piece geometries. A technique for generating the required cutting paths from the modeled geometry is also shown. The developed methodology was applied for the cutting of automotive seat cushions. The results show that the automated system significantly reduces the cutting time and produces cuts of im proved quality. ttp://www. sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0890695596000223 Plastic Foam Cutting Mechanics for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing Purposes by: Hadley Brooks Abstract: Development of foam cutting machines for rapid prototyping and manufacturing purposes began shortly after the first additive manufacturing machines became commercialized in the late 1980s. Increased computer power, the development and adoption of CAD/CAM software and rising demand for customization has caused the rapid prototyping industry to grow swiftly in recent decades.While conventional rapid prototyping technologies are continuing to improve in speed and accuracy the ability to produce large (> 1mA? ) prototypes, moulds or parts it is still expensive, time consuming and often impossible. Foam cutting rapid prototyping and manufacturing machines are ideally suited to fulfill this niche because of their high speed, large working volumes and inexpensive working materials. Few foam cutting rapid prototyping machines have been commercialized to-date leaving significant opportunities for research and development in this area.Thermal plastic foam cutting is the material removal process most commonly used in foam cutting rapid prototyping to shape or sculpt the plastic foam into desired shapes and sizes. The process is achieved by introducing a heat source (generally a wire or ribbon) which alters the physical properties of the plastic foam and allows low cutting forces to be achieved. In thermal plastic foam cutting the heat source is generated via Joule (electrical) heating. This study investigates the plastic foam cutting process using experimental cutting trials and finite element analysis.The first part of this thesis presents an introduction to conventional foam cutting machines and rapid prototyping machines. It is suggested that a market opportunity lies out of reach of both of these groups of machines. By combining attributes from each, foam cutting rapid protot yping machines can be developed to fill the gap. The second part of this thesis introduces the state-of-the-art in foam cutting rapid prototyping and investigates previous research into plastic foam cutting mechanics. The third part of this thesis describes cutting trials used to determine important factors which influence plastic foam cutting.Collectively over 800 individual cutting tests were made. The cutting trials included two main material sets, expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene, three different wire diameters, two hot-ribbon configurations and a wide range of feed rates and power inputs. For each cut the cutting force, wire temperature and kerfs width was measured as well as observations of the surface texture. The data was then analyzed and empirical relationships were identified. An excel spreadsheet is established which allows the calculation of important outcomes, such as kerf width, based on chosen inputs.Quantitative measurements of the surface roughness and form, of cuts made with hot-tools, will not be addressed in this thesis. This body of work is currently under investigation by a colleague within the FAST group. The fourth part of this thesis describes the formation of a nonlinear transient two-dimensional heat transfer finite element model, which is developed for plastic foam cutting simulations. The conclusion is that the cutting trials contributed to a better understanding of plastic foam cutting mechanics.A new parameter was identified called the mass specific effective heat input, which is a function of the foam material and the cutting tool, it allows the prediction of cutting conditions with given cutting parameters and hence provides the necessary relationships needed for adaptive automated foam sculpting. Simulation results were validated by comparison with experimental data and provide a strong base for further developments including optimization processes with adaptive control for kerf width (cut error) minimization.Thi s study has added considerably to the pool of knowledge for foam cutting with a hot-tool. In general, much of the work reported herein has not been previously published. This work provides the most advanced study of foam sculpting work available to date. http://ir. canterbury. ac. nz/bitstream/10092/4291/3/Thesis_fulltext. pdf. txt Cutting apparatus for plastic foam solids or the like Abstract: A cutting apparatus for plastic foam solids or the like which comprises a cutting wire system having a plurality of cutting wires attached ubstantially perpendicularly between two substantially parallel supporting rods spaced from each other so that a piece of plastic foam solid to be cut can be passed through the cutting wires between the supporting rods, and an oscillating drive engaged with the supporting rods so as to oscillate rotatably the supporting rods in opposing rotational directions and therefore to oscillate the wires to and fro lengthwise. The cutting wires are spaced from each other in either of two cutting wire positions lengthwise along the supporting rods.The cutting wires are attached eccentrically to the outer periphery of the supporting rods, each of the cutting wires which are each in a different one of the cutting wire positions lying in planes parallel to the supporting rods and each of the cutting wires in the same cutting wire position lying in the same plane. Each of the cutting wires in the different cutting wire positions is guided to and attached to opposite outer peripheral sides of each of the supporting rods so that the planes formed by the cutting wires of each of the different cutting wire positions cross each other at an acute angle.Preferably the cutting wires are heat able electrically and attached to the supporting rods by way of coil springs. http://www. patentstorm. us/patents/4608893. html A study on the influence of the sloped cutting angle on kerfwidth and part quality in the hotwire cutting of EPS foam for the VLM-Srapid prot otyping process Abstract: The VLM-S rapid prototyping process employs hotwire cutting of an EPS foam sheet using a four-axis synchronized automatic hotwire cutter. The dimensional accuracy and the quality of the cut part are highly dependent on cutting parameters such as effective heat input, and cutting angle, etc.The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cutting angle on the kerfs width and the part quality in hotwire cutting of EPS foam for the case of the sloped cutting including single-sloped cutting with one cutting angle and generally sloped cutting with two cutting angles. Experiments are carried out to obtain the relationship between kerfwidth and effective heat input for each cutting angle, and to find the relationship between the melted area and the cutting angle for each effective heat input.In order to investigate the influence of cutting angle on temperature distribution in EPS foam, transient heat transfer analysis using the sloped heat flux model and the conformed mesh structure is carried out. Through comparison of the results of the experiment and the transient heat transfer analysis, it has been shown that the sloped heat flux with an elliptical cross-section and the conformed mesh structure are needed to estimate the three-dimensional temperature distribution in the EPS foam in the sloped hotwire cutting. http://www. ciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S0890695503001706 PolymerÃ¢â¬âcement composite based on recycled expanded polystyrene foam waste Abstract: A new polymerÃ¢â¬âcement composite based on a recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS) resin has been developed as an effective method for EPS foam wastes management. The liquefied polymer is prepared by dissolving the foam waste in acetone, then in toluene at the ratio 113:2:1 per volume, respectively. The composite is made by incorporating the resulting resin into cement-paste at selected water: cement ratios.At the end of defined curing periods, the physical, m echanical, and thermal characterizations of the obtained composite were evaluated under variable factors e. g. , Acetone: toluene ratio, water: cement ratio (w/c), curing periods. Compressive strength, apparent porosity, bulk density, and specific gravity were determined for the composite under the various stated conditions. FT-IR, XRD, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were performed for the hard blocks to study the effect of the added recycled EPS resin on the microstructure of the end products.Based on the data so far obtained it can be concluded that the candidate dissolution process of EPS foam wastes is an easily environmental friendly technique that allows afterward using the resultant resin for producing an added value, low cost, promising market competitive, and multipurpose light weight cement composite. http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1002/pc. 21171/abstract Short-hot-wire method for the measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of a fi ne fibre Seiji Fujiwara, Xing Zhang, Motoo Fujii Received 20 December 1999 Abstract:A new short-hot-wire method for the measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of a fine fibre is proposed. This method uses two short hot wires and is based on the analytical solution of one-dimensional steady-state heat conduction along the hot wires and fibre. Two hot wires are arranged parallel to each other. Both the hot wires are supplied with a constant direct current to generate heat and maintain the same average temperature. A test fibre bridges the wires and its ends are attached to the centre position of each hot wire to form an H-type probe.By the use of this two hot wires technique, the total heat transmitted from the hot wires to the fibre is completely radiated from the fibre to the surroundings under vacuum conditions. Therefore, the average temperature rise of the hot wire depends on the emissivity of a fibre. The steady-state heat conduction for the H-type probe is analytically s olved to obtain the accurate relationship between the temperature rise of the hot wires and the fibre emissivity. Based on this relationship, the emissivity of the fibre can be estimated when the average temperature and the heat rate of the hot wires with known thermal properties are measured.The theoretical analysis has confirmed that the present method can obtain emissivity in the range of 0. 1 Ã¢â¬â 1. 0 within an error of Ã ±1% for the fibre with its diameter around 10 ? m. http://www. perceptionweb. com/abstract. cgi? id=htwu375 Synthesis: Styrofoam is of the most used polymer product. It is often used in architecture, carving and alike. There are many ways to cut Styrofoam, like using blades or cutter, also by the help of laser and also by using hot wires. There are many ways to create a Styrofoam cutter or better known as hot wire. And it is also sold in the market.A hot wire is not only for Styrofoam but it can also use for cutting plastics and other polymer substance. F or heat can divide polymer materials better than blades. Heating metals/wires can create a physical or chemical change to an object or it can also make a new product. While the electricity that would run in the wire would be the source of heat of the heated wire. Hot wire is a process of heating metals or wire in order to burn or cut an object. Using hot wire as an instrument of cutting may be complex but faster and more accurate than using blades.Styrofoam is a polymer product that takes time to decay. It is said in that the ratio of toluene is 113:2:1 per volume. It takes time of a small piece of Styrofoam to decay, a reason that Styrofoam should be used properly and should not be wasted. Styrofoam is one of pollutant that affects our environment a lot. Local Hot-wire parallel technique: A new method for simultaneous determination of thermal properties of polymers Abstract: The hot-wire parallel technique standardized for determining the thermal conductivity of ceramic materials w as employed in the determination of the thermal properties of polymers.For these materials, additional care must be taken considering the low melting point of polymers, when compared with that for ceramic materials. Samples can be prepared either in the shape of bricks or in the shape of half-cylinders. The thermal conductivity and the specific heat were simultaneously determined from the same experimental thermal transient, and the thermal diffusivity is derived from these properties. Five different polymers with different structures at room temperature were selected, and measurements were carried out from room temperature to approximately the maximum service operating temperature.A nonlinear least-squares fitting method was employed in the calculations, so that all the experimental points obtained are considered in the thermal properties' calculations. The apparatus used in this work is fully automatic. The reproducibility is very good with respect to the thermal conductivity, eve n with a defective experimental arrangement with respect to the theoretical model. However, deviations from the theoretical model have a severe influence on the specific heat values and, consequently, on the thermal diffusivity.Experimental results were compared with those available in the literature, showing the applicability of this technique for the determination of thermal properties of polymers. Ã © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 85: 1779Ã¢â¬â1786, 2002 http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1002/app. 10681/abstract Abstract: The hot-wire calibration method as proposed by Cimbala and Park (1990) has been showen to be accurate within a temperature range of 20Ã¢â¬â45Ã °C. This is a significant extension of the range used by Cimbala and Park (27. 5Ã¢â¬â 34. 5Ã °C). The accuracy of the calibration is not affected by the ambient temperature.The calibration curve obtained seems to hold over a long period of time, thus reducing the need for frequent calibr ations. Due to contamination the accuracy eventually decreases and the probe has to be re-calibrated. http://www. springerlink. com/content/r774213w086k2572/ Paper, Rice Hull and Polystyrene Foam Blocks John Gil E. Jimena, Jonathan Lloyd N. Lunsayan, Franco C. Flores Abstract: Nowadays, people in the construction industry here in the Philippines and abroad can always attest to the rising prices of the construction commodities in the market, not to mention the equally increasing cost of labor.This economic scenario is indeed an offshoot of the worsening global crisis that both highly developed and developing countries are experiencing. http://ejournals. ph/index. php? journal=CUEJ Synthesis: Styrofoam as we know can affect our environment. We cannot just let our environment ruined by these styrofoam,m the styrofoam cutter decreases the damage in our environment, the right temperature should be followed because if the wire is not that hot, it cannot cut styrofoam. Safety measure shoul d always be guided when doing the experiment.Hot-wire can cut easily because it has more heat produces than the other. It will be seen because of the styrofoam, sometimes if the styrofoam does not cut then the wires are not that hot to cut a styrofoam. Observe proper room temperature when doing the experiment is needed. Hot wires used when it needs to cut a certain material. Chapter III Methods of Research and Procedures In the previous chapters the researchers had gathered data for the experimentation that the researchers are about to conduct. The researchers looked for references for the experimentation.And in this chapter the researchers are going to conduct the experiment. It is putting all the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and collected information into application. Method of the Study In this research the researchers used experimental research for them to obtain the target output. Experimental Research is used to identify the dependent and independent variable and to know itÃ¢â¬â ¢s relationship to each other, to see the result of the study if it will succeed or not and to test the hypotheses which is used for basis of investigation.Also in this chapter, it involves the creation or invention of products and also, the creation of new ideas that may help the people who would encounter this kind of studies for the innovation of the country for the future. This study was intended to discover the effectiveness of styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials. Materials and Methods In conducting this experiment, the researchers created a homemade styrofoam cutter made of some recyclable materials and use guitar string as its main material. Since the experiment is made of recyclable materials, materials should come from junks and other old stuffs.The researchers only bought a single-pole dimmer switch from Ace Hardware. And all of the other materials came from some recycled stuffs like the guitars string number 1 from an old broken guitar, a 12 feet 16 gauge used extension cord, some old plywood came from excess ones, old or broken CD cases, an old 25 volt 2 amp transformer, an assembled length of two conductor electrical wires with a regular plug on the end, some excess metal wires shaped as rings, wooden rod and the tools needed to create the product. The materials do not need to be expensive nor classy.The materials have to be in good quality and durable so that the experiment work properly and be successful. With all the materials needed for the experiment the researchers started making the product. The researchers first made the frame of the styrofoam cutter. The researchers drew an arc on the plywood to serve as the frame of the styrofoam cutter. The frame should be stable and durable for long use. The researches put two machine screw nuts in the both end of the frame, these machine screw nuts would serve as the conductor of electricity and heat that comes from the wire.The machine screw nuts should not be small a nd not too tall for it can cause burns and other injury when touch. The next procedure was to attach the wires that carry the 25 Volts current to the cutting wire by the help of two machine screws as its terminal posts. Save the plug and outlets for future projects, if you like. Strip the insulation off the last inch of one end of one wire of the cord and insert a machine screw in the top of the right side of the frame. The next thing to do is to attach the guitar string as the hot wire. Make a loop by feeding the other end through this metal rings.Hook the loop over one terminal. The guitar string should not touch the frame and also the wires for it can burn but remember to keep it close to the nuts. And finally the researchers connected the dimmer switch and the transformer by the use of electric tapes. This will create an outlet and a wire that is connected to the guitar string. Finally the researchers enclosed the transformer in a box made of recycled materials to make the produ ct more creative, presentable and be eco-friendly. Statistical Treatment of Data The all the gathered data were subjected to the following formulas: Frequency DistributionFrequency Distribution is an arrangement of the values that one or more variables take in aÃ sample. It is used for identifying a specific proportion of the population. It is the number of times of occurrence of a variable. This statistical method is used by the researcher for calculating gather data. It can also show the rate percent of each value included in the set of questions. The scale is used in calculating gathered materials from the questionnaires. This is the formula being use: Wherein: P = percentage f = frequency n = number of samples Weighted MeanWeighted mean is also called as weighted average. It means finding the middle or the average where instead of each of the data points contributing equally to the final average, some data points contribute more than others. It was tallied for verbal interpret ation of data. Verbal Interpretation| Weighted Mean| Strongly Agree | 3. 31 Ã¢â¬â 4. 00| Agree | 2. 30 Ã¢â¬â 3. 30| Disagree | 1. 90 Ã¢â¬â 2. 29| Strongly Disagree| 1. 00 Ã¢â¬â 1. 89| Flowchart Chapter IV Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation of Data The pervious chapters are all about knowing the problem to be answered.Looking for facts that may help the researchers answer the problem to be solved. In this chapter, the researchers would be analyzing, presenting and interpreting all the gathered data in this research. The questionnaires made by the researcher would provide answers for the said study. This would serve as the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ medium in data gathering the researchers. This study was composed of 40 respondents selected randomly. Presentation is the practice of showing the gathered information or data and explaining the content of a topic to be discussed. It is the method used to organize and store data or information.AnalysisÃ is the process of brea king or subdividingÃ complex topicÃ or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding and better comprehension of it. It is where data are being evaluated and examined under the critical investigation of the study. And lastly, interpretation of data is giving meaning of an act. It is putting donation on the gathered data. It is the process of explaining and elaborating all of the data gathered. Table 1 The Materials that can be Used in Making a Styrofoam Cutter Items| Frequency| Percentage| Blade/Knife| 3| 1. 92%| Wire| 29| 18. 47%| Fire| 0| 0%|Guitar string| 25| 15. 93%| Transformer| 16| 10. 19%| Dimmer| 11| 7%| Switch| 20| 12. 74%| Metal rods| 15| 9. 55%| Needle| 2| 1. 27%| Plug| 20| 12. 74%| Cable wire| 13| 8. 28%| Laser| 3| 1. 91%| Total:| 157| 100%| It can be deduced from Table 1 the materials that can be used in making a styrofoam cutter. One point ninety-two percent (1. 92%) said that blade or knife is needed in making a styrofoam cutter. While eighteen point forty-seven percent (18. 47%) said that wires are needed in making a styrofoam cutter. Nut zero percent (0%) said that fire is needed in making a styrofoam cutter.Fifteen point ninety-three percent (15. 93%) said that guitar strings are needed in making a Styrofoam cutter. Ten point nineteen percent (10. 19%) said that transformer is needed in making a Styrofoam cutter. Seven percent (7%) said that dimmer is needed in making a styrofoam cutter. Twelve point seventy-four percent (12. 74%) said that switch is needed in making a Styrofoam cutter. Nine point fifty-five (9. 55%) percent said that metal rods are needed in making a Styrofoam cutter. One point twenty-seven percent (1. 27%) said that needle is needed in making a Styrofoam cutter.Graph 1 shows the possible materials to be used in making a Styrofoam cutter. Most or majority of the respondents chose wires, guitar string, switch and plug as the materials needed in making a Styrofoam cutter. Those materials are some of the mater ials used by the researchers in making the Styrofoam cutter. Table 2 Functionality of a Styrofoam Cutter Made of Guitar String and Recycled Materials Items| Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 37| 92. 5%| No| 3| 7. 5%| Total:| 40| 100| It can be deduced from Table 2 how functional the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials.It can be inferred that 37 out of 40 responds or ninety-two point five percent (92. 5%) believe that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and recycled materials is functional. While 3 out of 40 respondents or seven point five percent (7. 5%) do not believe that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and recycled materials is functional. Graph 2 shows how functional the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials. Majority or most of the respondents agree that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials is functional and working properly.Table 3 The Quality of the Styrofoam Cutter Ma de of Guitar String and Recycled Materials Items| SA| A| D| SD| WM| VI| 1. The product can create quality output. | 15| 22| 3| 0| 3. 3| SA| 2. The product is presentable to the eye. | 6| 28| 10| 11| 3. 45| SA| 3. The product will last long. | 7| 16| 15| 1| 2. 67| A| 4. The product proves that expense and quality could co-exist. | 10| 19| 10| 1| 2. 95| A| 5. The product needs careful handling. | 29| 11| 0| 0| 3. 72| SA| It can be deduced from Table 3 the quality of the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials.It can be inferred from the table that the respondents strongly agree that the product can create quality outputs with the weighted mean of 3. 3. Moreover, they also strongly agree that the product is presentable to the eye and the product needs careful handling with a computed weighted mean of 3. 45, and 3. 72 respectively. Furthermore they agree that the product will last long and proves that expense and quality could co-exist with a computed weighte d mean of 2. 67 and 2. 95 respectively. Graph 3 shows the quality of the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials.Majority of the respondents agreed that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials is in good quality. Table 4 The Effectiveness of the Styrofoam Cutter made of Guitar String and Recycled Materials. Items| SA| A| D| SD| WM| VI| 1. The product can function effectively. | 13| 22| 4| 1| 3. 17| SA| 2. The product can cut with less waste. | 10| 18| 12| 0| 2. 95| A| 3. The product can do better than man power. | 9| 20| 8| 2| 2. 85| A| 4. The product can cut better than blades. | 9| 26| 4| 1| 3. 07| SA| 5. The product does not create the shapes that are complex. | 9| 21| 8| 2| 2. 2| A| It can be deduced from Table 4 the effectiveness of the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials. It can be inferred from the table that the respondents strongly agree that the product can function effectively with the weighted mean of 3. 17. Moreover, they also strongly agree that the product can cut well than blades with a computed weighted mean of 3. 07. Furthermore they agree that the product can cut with less waste, can do better than man power and can create the shapes that are complex with a computed weighted mean of 2. 95, 2. 85 and 2. 92 respectively.Graph 4 shows the effectiveness of the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials. Majority of the respondents agreed that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials is effective in cutting Styrofoam. Table 5 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Styrofoam Cutter Made of Guitar String and Other Recycled Materials Items| SA| A| D| SD| WM| VI| 1. The product can be used significantly. | 9| 26| 4| 1| 3. 07| SA| 2. It is expensive. | 7| 14| 13| 6| 2. 55| A| 3. The product can easily cut Styrofoam. | 11| 23| 4| 2| 3. 07| SA| 4. It makes work faster. | 9| 21| 10| 0| 2. 7| A| 5. It is ec o-friendly for it is recycled. | 10| 25| 2| 3| 3. 05| SA| 6. It can easily be used without the help of manuals. | 10| 22| 7| 1| 3. 02| SA| 7. It gives hard time cutting small pieces of Styrofoam. | 8| 18| 10| 4| 2. 75| A| 8. It takes a lot of time heating the wire. | 10| 22| 8| 0| 3. 05| SA| 9. The product is capable of accurate cutting of Styrofoam. | 9| 27| 3| 1| 3. 1| SA| 10. It helps in creating less waste in cutting Styrofoam. | 15| 21| 2| 2| 3. 22| SA| It can be deduced from Table 5 the advantages and disadvantages of using Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials.It can be inferred from the table above that the respondents strongly agree that the product can be used significantly with the computed weighted mean of 3. 07. Moreover, they also strongly agree that the product can easily cut Styrofoam, eco-friendly for it is a recycled one, can easily be used without the help of manuals, takes a lot of time heating the wire, capable of accurate cutting o f Styrofoam and helps in creating less waste in cutting Styrofoam with the computed weighted mean of 3. 07, 3. 05, 3. 02, 3. 05, 3. 1 and 3. 22 respectively.Furthermore, they agree that the product is expensive, makes work faster and gives hard time cutting small pieces of Styrofoam with the computed weighted mean of 2. 55, 2. 97 and 2. 75 respectively. Graph 5 shows the advantages and disadvantages of using Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials. The respondents showed that the product has disadvantages and advantages when it comes to its function and effectiveness. It is also showed that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials has more advantages than disadvantages. Table 6The Possible Changes in the Society with the Use of Styrofoam Cutter Made of Guitar String and Other Recycled Materials Items| SA| A| D| SD| WM| VI| 1. It would be a big change in our craftsmen. | 8| 24| 7| 1| 2. 97| A| 2. It can lift our exports of St yrofoam crafts. | 5| 27| 7| 1| 2. 9| A| 3. It can replace men in their works. | 8| 15| 15| 2| 2. 72| A| 4. It could cause economic growth. | 12| 20| 8| 0| 3. 1| SA| 5. It can be made at home. | 15| 22| 2| 1| 3. 27| SA| It can be deduced from Table 6 the possible changes in the society with the use of Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials.It can be inferred from the table that the respondents agree that the product would be a big change in our craftsmen with the computed weighted mean of 2. 97. Moreover, they also agree that the product can lift our export of Styrofoam crafts and the product can replace men in their works with a computed weighted mean of 2. 9 and 2. 72 respectively. Furthermore, they strongly agree that the product could cause economic growth and that the product can be made at home with a computer weighted mean of 3. 1 and 3. 27 respectively.Graph 6 shows the possible changes in the society with the use of the Styrofoam cutter made of g uitar string and other recycled materials. Majority of the respondents strongly agree that the product can possibly change the society. Chapter V Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation In this chapter, Chapter 5 the result of all the gathered data would be discussed. This chapter contains the summary, the conclusion and the recommendation for the future researchers and for the readers. This chapter is based from the gathered information from the analysis and interpretation of data and also from the previous chapters. Summary of the FindingThis study focused on the Effectiveness of Styrofoam Cutter Made of Guitar String and Other Recycled Materials. The investigative method was implemented in order to determine relevant and up to date study. In this study forty respondents which came from random High School students of Cavite School of Life Ã¢â¬â Bacoor Campus, were chosen to partake in this study through expedience sampling technique. After demonstrating the product, questionnaires were handed over to the respondents for data gathering for the study. Based on the gathered data from the selected respondents the following are found relevant in the study:What are the materials that can be used in making a Styrofoam cutter? According to the data gathered from the respondents and presented in table 1 and graph 1 that wire with 18. 47%, guitar string 15. 93%, switch with 12. 74% and plug with 12. 74% are some of the common materials used and needed in making an effective Styrofoam cutter. And according to the respondents that fire, blade/knife, needle and laser are some materials not needed in making a Styrofoam cutter.Ã Does the product function properly? According to the data gathered from the respondents and presented in table 2 and graph 2 that 92. % of the respondents said that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials is functioning well and it does not malfunction. While 7. 5% of the respondents said that the product does not f unction well or did not pass their standard when it comes to being functional.How will the finished product made of guitar string and other recyclable materials be effective in terms: a. Quality; and According to the gathered information presented in table 3 and graph 3 that the product can create outputs that are creative and in good quality.The product was also presentable to the eye and it does not look like trash. The product seems to be durable and can last long. The negative thing about the product was it needs to be handled with care and it also proves that expense and quality can co-exist. b. effectiveness? According to the gathered information presented in table 4 and graph 4 the product can function efficiently and can cut well than blades. The product can also cut with less waste and it could also do better than output made by man. The negative thing about the product is it cannot create the shapes that are complex.4.What would be the advantages and disadvantages of the p roduct over the other cutting materials? According to the gathered information presented in table 5 and graph 5 the advantages of a Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials are: the product can be used significantly, can easily cut styrofoam, makes work faster, is eco-friendly for it is made of recycled materials, can easily be used without the help of manuals, is capable of accurate cutting of Styrofoam and lastly it helps in creating less waste in cutting Styrofoam compared to using blades. And also according to the gathered data the disadvantages of the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials are: that the product gives hard time cutting small pieces of Styrofoam and takes a lot of time heating the wire.5. How could this product make a change in the society? According to the gathered information presented in table 6 and graph 6 that the product can make different changes in the society. The product could cause economic growth for our country and it can be made at home.The product can also be a big change in our craftsmen, can also lift our exports of Styrofoam crafts and can replace men in their works. Conclusions After summarizing the result of the study the researchers came up with the following conclusions based on the authenticity and cooperativeness of high school students of Cavite School of Life Ã¢â¬â Bacoor Campus, as the respondents in answering the questions.1. There are many materials that can be used in this experiment. But in this study the researchers found out the top five materials that can be used in this experiment. Top choice was wire which was used as the connection between the source of electricity and the output. The second top choice was guitar string which was used by the researchers as their hotwire. The third top choice was plug and switch. The fourth choice was transformer which was used as the source of electricity. And lastly, the fifth choice was metal rods that can also serve as hotwires.2. Malfunctioning is one of the product number one problem. Good thing the product in this experiment did not malfunction and function efficiently.In this study the researchers found out that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials was functioning well and can do its work properly.3. 1. In every product quality is always checked. In this study the researchers found out that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials can provide outputs that are of good quality. The product is also presentable to the eyes. This product proves that expense and quality could co-exist which means that there are cheap product that can give good quality than expensive one.They could be reliable and durable with almost the lower range of price.4. 2. Effectiveness of a product should always be observed. The researchers found out that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials is better than blades wh en it comes to cutting or craving Styrofoam. The good thing in this product is it creates less waste when cutting Styrofoam and it can also do better than cutting or carving manually. But the product also has its limitations for it is not that good in cutting or craving complex shapes.4. Every product has its weakness and strength. The researchers found out that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials has different advantages and disadvantages. It is also said to be time consuming when heating the guitar string. The said disadvantages do not hinder the product to perform well. The research also found out the advantages of using a Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials that it is capable of accurate cutting of Styrofoam than other cutting instrument. It is also eco-friendly and easy to use for it is just a simple machine.The product can also make work faster and easier.5. The researchers found out that the Styrofoam cutter made of guitar string and other recycled materials can make a big change in our society and for our society. It can develop the way our craftsman cut or crave Styrofoam. And it could also improve our product and our economy.Recommendation1. The researchers recommend that Styrofoam should be used properly and not be wasted.2. The researchers recommend that the product should be improved to solve the products disadvantages.3. The researchers recommend that having innovation of Styrofoam cutter will make it more effective to be used and function in the best way it could.4. The researchers recommend that this product should open the eyes of the people to be eco-friendly.5. The researchers recommend that the readers should appreciate recycled things and make usable stuffs from trash or old materials.6. The researchers recommend that the use of Styrofoam cutter made of guitar strings and recycled materials could make a difference and can provide economic growth.[ 1 ]. http://cooking-ez. c om/page. php? id=27[ 2 ]. http://cooking-ez. com/page. php? id=27.http://hotwirefoamcutterinfo. com/Hot_Wire_Foam_Cutter_Info/Introduction. html. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hot-wire_foam_cutter[ 5 ]. http://hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/hbase/thermo/thercond. html[ 6 ]. Philippines Star Climate Change Survival Tip 3: Say NO to Styrofoam[ 7 ]. http://www. philstar. com/Article. aspx? articleId=694303
Saturday, January 4, 2020
KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ Love for Fanny Brawne in The Eve of St. Agnes Ã¢â¬Å"For myself I know not how to express my devotion to so fair a form: I want a brighter word than bright, a fairer word than fair. I almost wish we were butterflies and livÃ¢â¬â¢d but three summer daysÃ¢â¬âthree such days with you I could fill with more delight than fifty common years could ever containÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âJohn Keats to Fanny Brawne (Bate 538). As the colloquial phrase goesÃ¢â¬ ¦behind every great man, lies a great woman, but in John KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ case, the woman is neither great nor his superior but inspires greatness in the Romantic poet. This woman calls herself Fanny Brawne. She was intellectually inferior to Keats, but her sprightly character added rich, sensuosity to his writing. JohnÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some may call her interests frivolous and fashionable, but to Keats, her worldly enjoyment gave him appreciation for physical sensibility, experiencing nature and one another through smell, taste, touch, sight, and sound. Rather than instructing interaction with physical nature, Keats breathes nature into his poetry. For example, William WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Tables TurnedÃ¢â¬ encourages one to leave the classroom and take a romp in fertile woodlands: Enough of Science and of Art Close up those barren leaves; Come forth, and bring with you a heart That watches and receives (129) WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry lectures on nature while KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ poetry playfully frolics in the meadow. Ã¢â¬Å"The Eve of St. AgnesÃ¢â¬ stimulates intensity and personal connection because the fragrances, flavors, and feel of the scene come alive. The night is Ã¢â¬Å"honeyed,Ã¢â¬ the fair virgins are Ã¢â¬Å"lilly whiteÃ¢â¬ (VI), and the air resounds with Ã¢â¬Å"timbrelsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"faery fancyÃ¢â¬ (VIII). Madeline admires the Ã¢â¬Å"languid moonÃ¢â¬ and her interests spring to life as a Ã¢â¬Å"full-blown roseÃ¢â¬ (528). Objects in nature represent human characteristics. Renaissance folklore inspires the lines: Ã¢â¬Å"While legioned faeries paced the coverlet/And pale enchantment held her sleepy-eyedÃ¢â¬ (XIX). Mystic revelry and description allows the reader to feel apart of KeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ poem. The quintessential sense-oriented stanza attains the intensity of emotions: AndShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of John Keats s Poem2045 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesand can show an in depth meaning about these two words. In this poem John Keats was explaining that one of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s best pleasures in this world is to Ã¢â¬Å"to sleepÃ¢â¬ . This is because people are asleep and their mind can be free, also because lives troubles can be set aside. When sleeping people can place themselves in a peaceful environment. Through the later verses though, he expresses the only solution is to wait for death. Keats is narrating a story about himself. Another interpretation can be , is thatRead MoreThomas Keats And Frances Jennings Essay1033 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThomas Keats and Frances Jennings gave birth to John Keats on 31 October 1795 at his grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s livery stable in London, United Kingdom.(Ã¢â¬Å"Keats, John (1795-1821).Ã¢â¬ ) His father died in a riding accident when John was only 8 y ears old. As for JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, she died when he was 14 years old due to tuberculosis.(Ã¢â¬Å"Keats, John (1795-1821).Ã¢â¬ ) John had two younger brothers, George and Tom, and a younger sister named Fanny. John and his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s George and their younger brother went to John ClarkeÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEssay On John Keats1035 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJohn Keats Thomas Keats and Frances Jennings gave birth to John Keats on 31 October 1795 at his grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s livery stable in London, United Kingdom.(Ã¢â¬Å"Keats, John (1795-1821).Ã¢â¬ ) His father died in a riding accident when John was only 8 years old. As for JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, she died when he was 14 years old due to tuberculosis.(Ã¢â¬Å"Keats, John (1795-1821).Ã¢â¬ ) John had two younger brothers, George and Tom, and a younger sister named Fanny. John and his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s George and their younger brother went to JohnRead MoreJohn Keats Essay968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThomas Keats and Frances Jennings gave birth to the infamous John Keats on 31 October 1795 at his grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s stable in London, United Kingdom.(Ã¢â¬Å"Keats, John (1795-1821).Ã¢â¬ ) In early adolescence, KeatÃ¢â¬â¢s father had encountered an accident while riding which led to his death when John was a measly 8 year old. As for JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, she deceased when he was 14 years old due to t he tragic disease tuberculosis.(Ã¢â¬Å"Keats, John (1795-1821).Ã¢â¬ ) John was succeeded by two younger brothers, George and Tom and alsoRead More To Autumn - The Final Season In the Life of a Poet Essay examples1778 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe final stage in John Keats life. During this time period, Keats created some of his best poetry. These works would forever elevate Keats as a brilliant and talented poet whose mark would be left on the literary world forever. The last years of Keats life were met with many challenges as well as inspirations. It was a combination of these which not only influenced, but inspired Keats to write such poems as, The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia, The Fall of Hyperion, and To Autumn. To AutumnRead MoreThe Great English Poet By John Keats2083 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesto secure themselves a place in history, and to find someone to love who returns their sentiments. The great English poet, John Keats, struggled to achieve these goals for many years As he grew, John Keats struggled to meet many goals, highlighting the desire that all of humankind shares to achieve greatness. According to legend, Mrs. Frances Keats gave birth to a healthy baby boy in a stable on October 1, 1795 (Ward 5). Mrs. Keats and her husband, Thomas, named their son John and loved him dearlyRead More John Keats Essay911 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages English Literature Biographical Speech Keats, John (1795-1821) English poet, one of the most gifted and appealing of the 19th century and a seminal figure of the romantic movement. Keats was born in London, October 31, 1795,and was the eldest of four children. His father was a livery-stable owner, however he was killed in a riding accident when Keats was only nine and his mother died six years later of tuberculosis. Keats was educated at the Clarke School, in Enfield, and at the age of 15 wasRead MoreEssay on John Keats La Belle Damn Sans Merci Analysis1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslot is love. T. S Elliot once quoted Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an escape from emotionÃ¢â¬ . As such, it is no wonder that the themes of unrequited love and despair are very prominent in poem La Belle Dame sans Merci by John Keats. In this poem Keats clearly denotes his personal rebellion against the pains of love and revealed the sad reality that; in pleasure, there is pain. This paper will take a closer look at one of the most prominent themes in La Belle Dame sans Merci; Love andRead MoreLa Belle Dame sans Merci by John Keats1795 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEngl ish Romantic poet was able to achieve fame in his short career of only five years. John Keats was a poet with a remarkable ability to perceive the world around him; an ability that resonated throughout his works. Although John Keats lived an unfortunately short life, he is considered one of the most important figures of the English Romantic movement because of his use of Romantic literary devices and themes of love and loss in poems such as La Belle Dame sans Merci and When I Have Fears that I MayRead MoreRomantic Poets : John Keats1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesJohn Keats, who became one of the main figures among Romantic poets. Keats only lived to be twenty-five years old, but within those twenty-five years, he was able to write numerous poems that would now be considered as some of the greatest pieces ever written. Keats was born in Moorgate, London, England on October 31, 1795. He was the son of Francis and Thomas Keats, who was the manager of a livery stable. Keats was the oldest of four children; George Keats, Tom Keats, and Frances Mary Keats. In
Friday, December 27, 2019
India Perdue Writing 5 Deanne Harper 15 March 2016 The Christian Approach to Happiness How should we live in order to be happy? Western society, even academia, are thoroughly obsessed with this question. We observe happiness in unexpected ways and places, and see great damage done in its absence. We experience happiness as powerful and intoxicating. We assert confidently that it is good. We yearn to understand it, define it, and capture it. Happiness is the great enigma that even young children seem to feel, but even great scientists cannot fully explain. In every discipline happiness meets new definitions and explanations. Every discipline arrives at nuanced conclusions about the source of happiness and the most productive means of pursuit. Christian doctrine is no exception, both the Christian bible authors and the Christian writers that came after them grapple with ideas about the essence of happiness and how to approach it. While the world perceives ultimate freedom and autonomy as crucial in their pursuit of happiness, Christians assert that happiness is a product of committing to the things that you love and that bring you fulfillment. The Christian approach to happiness is embedded within a holistic framework to find fulfilment and meaning in life through worshipping God. In order to address the Christian approach to happiness, we must first establish what happiness is. Happiness as defined by the Merriam Webster dictionary is a state of well-being, contentment, orShow MoreRelatedThe Unexamined Life Is Not Worth Living1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespeople to happiness? If there is a map, every human being can attain happiness easily. Is there any map for seeking happiness? How can people get hold of the Ã¢â¬ËmapÃ¢â¬â¢ to happiness? In order to attain happiness, there are different kinds of religions and philosophies that provide directions. There are many religions around the world that give people positive support for general and mental health and helping people to be happier in life. Also, many philosophers deal with the nature of happiness and theRead MoreBroadcasting Corporation s Decision On Broadcast Jerry Springer1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmade the decision to air it in 2005. I will be comparing the number of people who complained to the BBC to the total amount of people who watched the broadcast using viewing figures and charts. In addition, I will also look at the viewpoints of the Christian Voice Campaign who argued against the opera. Finally, I will also be using my knowledge of Utilitarianism and Kantianism while referencing the viewing figures and the BBC s general duty to the public to establish my thoughts on the BBC broadcastingRead MoreMoral Virtues Between Aristotle And St. Thomas Aquinas1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDominican priest, brought up the element of moral virtues as well. This essay will establish that AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s belief of moral virtues seems to have impacted that of AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ and that he appeared to have furthered those ideas to apply to his own Christian values. It will be presented that the two philosophers were life affirming, but that when Aristotle focused on the way to moral virtues intrinsically, AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ focus was on the progress to morality for God. The second book of Nic omachean EthicsRead MoreNichomachean Ethics And Thomas Aquinas986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgood, and happiness, specifically in AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Nichomachean EthicsÃ¢â¬ and Thomas AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"On the Nature of Law.Ã¢â¬ And by examining these texts I wish to argue that even though they lived nearly 1000 years apart, Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas share the same overall view of justice, but they each follow different paths to reach that justice. Both Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas believe in the pursuit of happiness as a measure of justice and a desirable chief end of life. So in this view, all lawsRead MoreThe Philosophies Of Christianity And Buddhism Essay1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesas well as the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s personal views and new perspectives, will also be discussed. Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity America is known as a melting pot of cultures, and because of this, health care providers encounter patients and families from a multitude of different backgrounds and religions. Every religion comes with its own set of beliefs, rituals, and worldview. What each culture or religion believes as truth can effect their view of health and wellness. Health careRead MoreThe Effect Of Western Morality And Its Strict Rules1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfrom eating any foods that is unsafe. Christian and Moral rules are not supposed to be taken as perfect facts instead Christians read them and leave them to be interpreted by the reader. Nietzsche contradicts himself when he says Ã¢â¬Å"Fortunately, no Christian acts in accordance with this preceptÃ¢â¬ (347). Though I concede he is saying this statement in a snarky manner I maintain that it is still a valid argument. Nietzsche is saying that it is good that Christians donÃ¢â¬â¢t follow the ridiculous rules suchRead MoreBuddhism from a Christian View920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBuddhism from a Christian View When the word Buddha is spoken the thoughts of Zen, peace and tranquility may come to mind. To the over 300 million BuddhistÃ¢â¬â¢s throughout the world Buddhism is much more than a religion, it is a way of life. The path of a Buddhist can be summed up in three simple sentences. The first, lead a moral life. The second, be mindful of your thoughts and actions and lastly, develop wisdom and understanding. Buddhism is said to explain injustice within the world and at theRead MoreSimilarity Between Religion And Utilitarianism813 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesare judged according to their consequences and the relevant consequence of every action is happiness. There is a similarity between religion and utilitarianism. For example, love includes wanting happiness and religious principles such as loving others the way you love yourself and doing to others what you expect them to you are founded on utilitarian principles. The ultimate goal for a utilitarian is happiness, which is also the main ob jective of religion. Utilitarian ethics replicates the main religiousRead MoreHappiness : The Goal Of Life1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOutline THESIS: Happiness has many different interpretations throughout various religions and also many different definitions, but I believe that happiness is a goal and it all comes down to the way someone lives their life and their own thoughts. 1. Happiness: The Goal of Life a. Introduction 2. Religions Perspective on Happiness a. Overview of Religions b. Christians, Islamic and Judaism c. Buddhism and Taoism 3. People Throughout HistoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Thoughts on Happiness a. Overview of Peoples PerspectivesRead MoreThe Challenges Of Leading A Good Life1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreally no hope of finding the good life, as people all try to fill the void in their lives. Then why has the Christian faith in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s good work changed to that of the new church of self-prosperity? For without God people would keep climbing the ladder to what they feel should be the ultimate good, but coming away feeling empty and incomplete. Where is the wisdom in this because as Christians, God has called us to a higher standard, that needs to be more focused on living a Christ centered life. Not
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Immigrant defined as a process of leaving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s home country to settle in a new one. Immigration is a large group or number of immigrants. Some other words that are also known as immigrants are an outsider, settler, alien, newcomer, and foreigners. People often get legal and illegal immigrants confused on which one mean which. Legal is newcomers who have entered a country by law. Illegal is forbidden by law or statute. Emigrant is a person who emigrates from his or her native country or region. Personally, legal outsiders need to stay here while illegal outsiders should go back to the country they came from. First, immigration is a topic that has been around for centuries. Over the age of time, many influences have encouraged modificationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to Ã¢â¬Å"Immigration Policy on Issues and Controversies,Ã¢â¬ some say that is best to build a wall the border of the U.S. and Mexican and preventing homesteading to protect the U.S. Some that oppose to having the stricter measure to limit illegal homesteading is they do not harm the United States. Also, immigration and immigrants helped build the U.S, outsiders benefit the economy, and that this is un-American (1). Notwithstanding, immigrants are taking peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s jobs. People who are skilled or trained in a certain occupation have decreased, while the unskilled or untrained have increased over time because of illegal immigrants (Houle 75). Most businesses hire outsiders because they work for less money. Americans who have lower wages have to compete with settlers who work for low earnings for jobs (History). While Americans complain about how they should get paid better. Most Americans think that if they go on strike, their boss to get the point and give them a raise, but in the end, their boss can go and hire someone else or even an outsider and pay a lot less. Nevertheless, state immigration law that happened over the last couple of years. According to State Immigration Law, Alabama is the state that has the most illegal immigrants which are roughly around 120,000. Generally, 2.5 percent of AlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s residents are illegal Mexicans. A law called HB 56, inShow MoreRelatedThe Civil Rights Act Of The United States Essay1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageskind of sad seeing our president for 8 years leave after all the great tasks he has accomplished for America. Ã Voting has been fought for many of years. In just 1866, the Civil Rights Act granted all native Americans citizenship but not the right to vote. In 1869, Congress granted the right for African American men the right to vote. Also, in 1896 Louisiana passed the Ã¢â¬Å"Grandfather ClauseÃ¢â¬ , basically stating if you were descendents of a slave you couldn t vote. This still hindered Ã primarily AfricanRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of The United States1205 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, and the interpretation of its language. This focus became a clear codified interpretation in 1990, following the same strain of thoughts as the Civil Rights Act of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, advocates of the disabled community lobbied for the equal protections that had been previously granted to racial minorities. In subsequent acts, the disabled constituency had gained protections in 1973 with the amendment of the Fair Housing Act and again in 1988 with theRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of The United States1871 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesas the Civil Rights Acts, the Equal Pay Act, the Fair Housing Act, and the Voting Rights Act that guarantee equality for all, regardless of race, gender, and ethnicity. Though these laws exist, they do not do the best job of ensuring equality. There is a sickening amount of inequality in the United States. As far as the Civil Rights Acts go, there have been improvements, but there is still a lot of discrimination and economic inequality among minorities in the United States. The Civil Rights ActsRead MoreThe Role Of Civil Disobedience And The Civil Rights Movement1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinjustices. Ranging from peaceful marches to powerful acts of civil disobedience, not only in the United States but in Central American countries such as Nicaragua. This being said, civil protests and peaceful demonstrations were not necessarily more successful in exuding change than pieces of legislation but moreso acted as a catalyst for social change, leading towards legislation that would positively impact those who protested. The concept of civil disobedience and peaceful demonstration acting asRead MoreProtecting Fundamental Rights Of Citizens888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesProtecting Fundamental Rights of Citizens Ã¢â¬Å"A civil right is an enforceable right or privilege, which if interfered with by another gives rise to an action for injuryÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Civil RightsÃ¢â¬ ). In his article Ã¢â¬Å"To Begin the Nation Anew: Congress, Citizenship, and Civil Rights after the Civil War,Ã¢â¬ Robert J. Kaczorowski discusses the relationship between civil rights and the constitution laws of the 1860s. The federal government creating amendments and laws Ã¢â¬Å"that conferred on all Americans the preciousRead MoreThe Progression of Civil Rights in the USA Essay657 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Civil rights are the rights guaranteed to the citizens of the specified location. When looking back at our history our civil rights have changed our life forever. Our civil rights were first introduced in 1787 as our Constitution. The Constitution states that any citizen is guaranteed the right to freedom of speech, of religion, and of press, and the rights to due process of law and to equal protection under the law. Civil Rights Acts and Movements helped define all of the civil rights but mainlyRead MoreImpact Of John F Kennedy On The Civil Rights Act Of 19641080 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa major influence on the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Prior to the act, segregation in the United States was still strongly supported, but civil rights groups continued to fight against racism. After the election of 1960, John F. Kennedy continually supported the civil rights movement and he created a Civil Rights Act to fight for equal rights. After his assassination in 1963, the Civil Rights Act act was passed. Segregation in the United States was very present prior to the electionRead MoreChapter 22 Apush Key Terms1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarcus Pando Period 4 Chapter 22 Key Terms Describe and state the historical significance of the following: 7. Freedmens Bureau Initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War. At the end of the war, the Bureaus main role was providing emergency food, housing, and medical aid to refugees, though it also helped reunite families. Later, it focused its work on helping the freedmen adjust to their conditions of freedom. ItsRead MoreHeart of Atlanta V. United States825 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHeart of Atlanta v. United States Heart of Atlanta v. United States (1964) - Any business that was participating in interstate commerce would be required to follow all rules of the federal civil rights legislation. In this case, a motel that wanted to continue segregation was denied because they did business with people from other states. This important case represented an immediate challenge to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the landmark piece of civil rights legislation which represented the firstRead MoreSignificance Of The Reconstruction Act861 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Reconstruction Acts Ã¢â¬â after the civil war four bills were passed by the United States Congress in 1867 in order to bring the country back together, providing the process and criteria that would allow the Southern states with the exception Tennessee, readmission into the Union. (Ohio Civil War Central, 2015) The significance of the Reconstruction act was the division of the south into five military districts; loyal freed male now allowed to vote, ex-confederate denied rights to hold office could
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
From the very beginning of the play the audience is warned that Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s love will not end well. There is much evidence in Act II that foreshadows the loverÃ¢â¬â¢s fate. One instance of this is when Romeo asks the Friar for consent to marry him with Juliet and the Friar shocked says Ã¢â¬Å"Holy Saint Francis! What a change is here! / Is Rosaline that though didst love so dear /so soon forsaken? Young mens love then lies/Not truly in their hearts/but in their eyesÃ¢â¬ (Act 2. 3 65-68). This foreshadows a bad end to Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s love as the friar is saying that he was so quick to get over Rosaline that obviously he has never been in love and is merely physically attracted to Juliet and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually care about her the same way he was with Rosaline. As if this is true their relationship most probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t last long. We will write a custom essay sample on Romeo and Juliet Journal Act 2 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Another example of foreshadowing there terrible fate is when the friar is about to marry them and he gives the advice to the couple saying Ã¢â¬Å"These violent delights have violent ends/and in their triumph die, like fire and powder/which as they kiss consume. The sweetest honey/ is loathsome in his own deliciousness/and in the taste confounds the appetite/Therefore love moderately: long love doth so; /too swift arrives as tardy as too slow. Ã¢â¬ (Act 2. 6 9-15). This foreshadows their fate as he warns Juliet not to obsess and fascinate over Juliet as he did with Rosaline or his love wonÃ¢â¬â¢t last as long and obviously Romeo refuses to head his warning. This passage does a great job predicting the befall of the characters as it pinpoints one of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s exact problems and one that he will not listen to the friar about and take his advice. One other example foreshadowing failure in Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship is when Juliet is trying to get the nurse to tell her what Romeo had said about their marriage and how they plan to do it and the nurse says Ã¢â¬Å"Well, you have made a simple choice; you know/not how to choose a man. Romeo? No not he. Ã¢â¬ (Act 2. 5 38-39). This shows how the nurse doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that Romeo is the right man for Juliet to marry.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
The Harmful Effects Of Smoking The Harmful Effects of Smoking Name: Adam Newell Teacher: Dr. Delos Santos Section: 57 Date December 8, 1999 Research Paper Words: 1901 Every year thousands of people die because of lung cancer or other tobacco related illnesses. Everyone in the world comes in contact with smoke from a cigarette at least once in their lifetime, whether it is at a restaurant or at work. Millions of people are addicted to smoking, and thousands more become addicted every year. Cigarettes and other tobacco products are everywhere. Most of the addicted smokers started when they were young (Roberts 18). The reason why people get addicted to any type of tobacco product is because all tobacco products have nicotine in them, which is the addictive ingredient (American Thoracic Society 22). Every time a person smokes a cigarette or chews tobacco, that person ingests nicotine. I believe that the tobacco companies should be liable for every tobacco-related death each year. On the other hand, some people believe that everyone has a right to make their own judgment about their life. My opponent, Rosalind Marimont argues drugs and alcohol are more dangerous to society than tobacco (26). Second hand smoking is not a danger to the health of the community (Marimont 26). There are health benefits for people that do smoke tobacco (Marimont 27). So many people quit smoking each year, it is so ridiculous to think that tobacco products are addicting argues Richard DeGrandpre (39). The facts about tobacco and tobacco products have been shaded by the government and government agencies to make smoking less acceptable and more inconvenient to smokers and tobacco users Sullum argues (55). My opponents firmly believe that there are no risks if a person starts smoking. As you will see, I will show extenuating facts that disprove my opponents views on tobacco products. My opponent states that smoking is not dangerous, however, I intend to prove that smoking is dangerous not just to smokers, but to everyone as well. It is a proven fact that smoking causes lung cancer and heart disease (American Thoracic Society 19). Every person that breathes the smoke of tobacco products is at risk for tobacco-related illnesses. Even though smoking is not as publicized by the media as much as illegal drugs, cigarettes are just as bad. Smoking cigarettes leads to the use of other drugs that are more harmful to the person than cigarettes (Hall 22). If smoking was not dangerous, then why is there a commercial on television telling the viewer that the tobacco companies kill 1000 people everyday? The statistics on the number of people that die each year in the United States from tobacco or tobacco-related illness is astonishing. Over four hundred thousand people die each year from smoking (American Thoracic Society 19). Also, a person age twenty-five that is a heavy smoker has a life expectancy that is twenty-five percent less than a person that does not smoke (American Thoracic Society 19). more For something that is not a hazard to people's health, they sure do account for a lot of deaths that occur each year. I do not see how my opponent can contend that secondhand smoke is not a heath hazard to the rest of the community. Secondhand smoke affects everyone because it goes into the air. We (nonsmokers) can not protect ourselves from other people's cigarette smoke (Garrision 44). Everyone breaths, therefore, if you are sitting next to someone that smokes, you are probably getting a some smoke in your lungs. This happens because when smoke goes into the air, it disappears into the oxygen. As you breath in oxygen, you also breath in a minimal amount of the cigarette smoke. In 1986, a surgeon general's report was released that stated smoke from tobacco products can cause cancer in healthy non-smoking adults (Garrision 45). It has been proven that secondhand smoke can cause lung cancer and other tobacco-related illnesses in people that do not smoke (Garrision 45). Yet the tobacco companies continue to deny that the smoke of cigarettes cause these illnesses to non-users of tobacco (Garrision 47). The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that secondhand smoke is the cause of over three thousand deaths from lung cancer each year (Garrison 44). Smoking has also been linked to colon cancer. Even if you quit smoking, your risk of colon cancer remains higher than if you had never started smoking (Keyishian 13). Many people are aware of the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and agree with restrictions and/or a total